Welfare States

Core findings

1.Party organization determines whether parties stick to policies they support ideologically or policies that bring vote or office benefits (Schumacher 2012, Marx and Schumacher 2013).

2.Social Democrats and Christian Democrats are punished for welfare state retrenchment. Right-wing parties are not punished (Schumacher, Vis and van Kersbergen 2013).

3.Left-wing and right-wing parties primarily differ in the institutional reforms they implement, not so much in the policy reforms (Klitgaard, Schumacher and Soentken 2015).



Paul Marx & Gijs Schumacher (2016). The effect of economic change and elite framing on support for welfare state retrenchment: a survey experiment. Journal of European Social Policy 26, 1.

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Gijs Schumacher & Kees van Kersbergen (2016). Do mainstream parties adapt to the welfare chauvinism of populist parties? Party Politics, 22, 3.

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Michael Baggesen Klitgaard, Gijs Schumacher & Menno Soentken (2015). The Partisan Politics of Institutional Welfare State Reforms. Journal of European Public Policy, 22, 7.

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Christian Elmelund-Præstekær, Michael Baggesen Klitgaard & Gijs Schumacher (2015). What Wins Public Support? Communicating or Obfuscating Welfare State Retrenchment. European Political Science Review, 7, 3.

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Gijs Schumacher, Barbara Vis & Kees van Kersbergen (2013). Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment, and Welfare State Retrenchment. Comparative European Politics, 11, 1.

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Paul Marx & Gijs Schumacher (2013). Will to Power? Intra-Party Conflict in Social Democratic Parties and the Choice for Neoliberal Policies in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain, European Political Science Review, 5, 1

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Gijs Schumacher (2012). ‘Marx’ or the Market? Intra-party power and Social Democratic Welfare State Retrenchment, West European Politics, 35, 5.

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Gijs Schumacher & Barbara Vis (2012). Why Do Social Democrats Retrench the Welfare State? A Simulation. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 15, 3.

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Gijs Schumacher (2011). Signaling a Change of Heart. How Parties Short-Term Ideological Shifts Explain Welfare State Reform. Acta Politica, 46, 4.

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Chapters / Data / Other

Philip Manow, Kees van Kersbergen & Gijs Schumacher (2013). De-industrialization and the Expansion of the Welfare State: A Reassessment. In: A. Wren, Political Economy of the Service Sector . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Gijs Schumacher (2011). “Modernize or Die”? Social Democrats, Welfare State Retrenchment and the Choice between Office and Policy. VU University Amsterdam Dissertation.

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