This is a new project that analyzes the use of emotion by politicians, and the effects of political communication on emotion. It has strong links with my work on political strategy and personality. This project is financed by the European Research Council. Here you can find a description of this project.

Work in progress

1. A paper that analyzes physiological responsiveness to different political messages about immigration, EU, climate and inequality, with Bert Bakker and Matthijs Rooduijn.

2. A paper that evaluates the link between the negativity bias and ideology, with Bert Bakker and Kevin Arceneaux.



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Christian Pipal, Bert N. Bakker, Gijs Schumacher & Mariken A. C. G. van der Velden (2024). Tone in politics is not systematically related to macro trends, ideology, or experience. Scientific Reports , 14.
Gijs Schumacher, Maaike D. Homan, Isabella Rebasso, Neil Fasching, Bert N. Bakker & Matthijs Rooduijn (2024). Establishing the validity and robustness of facial electromyography measures for political science. Politics and the Life Sciences , FirstView
Maaike D. Homan, Gijs Schumacher & Bert Bakker (2023). Facing emotional politicians: Do emotional displays of politicians evoke mimicry and emotional contagion? Emotion , 23, 6.
Gijs Schumacher, Matthijs Rooduijn & Bert Bakker (2022). Hot Populism? Affective responses to antiestablishment Rhetoric. Political Psychology, 43, 5t.
Bert Bakker, Gijs Schumacher & Matthijs Rooduijn (2020). Hot Politics? Affective responses to political rhetoric. American Political Science Review.Replication
Bert Bakker, Gijs Schumacher & Maaike Homan (2020). Yikes. Are we disgusted by politicians? Politics and Life Sciences. Replication
Bert Bakker, Gijs Schumacher, Claire Gothreau and Kevin Arceneaux (2020). Conservatives and liberals have similar physiological responses to threats. Nature Human Behaviour Replication

Chapters / Data / Other

PDF  Pdf version    Appendix  Appendix    Blog  Blog    Replication Materials  Replication Materials